Specialism, as opposed to integration, refers to a view of oneself in terms of specific roles. It is a result of mechanical media's fragmentation. In this view, people are differentiated by their specialist skills, like machines in an assembly line.
Specialism has historically been associated with slavery. When a community is conquered and enslaved, one strategy it may take is to become specialists, such as smiths and armorers, and so to become essential to their masters. In light of this, some have seen Western submission to his technology as a kind of enslavement, albeit with an unaware enthusiasm instead of a conscious strategy.
One risk of specialism is that, in adapting perfectly to one situation, the individual or society loses ability to adapt to other situations.